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After Bull Run, the northern armies retreated to the defenses of Washington, DC, to reorganize, train, and equip for a protracted war. Governor Morgan continued to send new regiments into the fight, and New York's industries developed their technological capabilities and produced more sophisticated weapons for the battlefield.

Both sides gained combat experience and developed new, skilled leaders. Casualties rose even as battles remained indecisive. Confederates shifted from their defensive strategy and invaded Maryland hoping to turn public sentiment against the war effort.

Battle of Antietem -
September 17, 1862
David Lyons, Drummer in the
60th New York Volunteer Infantry
Snare Drum
Broadside Ballad, The Drummer of Antietam
The Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Fredericksburg -
December 13, 1862
Parrott Guns
Burden's Horseshoe Machine
Burden Horeshoe Keg
Elias Peissner, Lieutenant Colonel of the
119th New York Volunteers
Medicine in the Civil War
Dr. Mary Walker
Reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation