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Many New Yorkers continued to resist the erosion of African American civil rights throughout the late-19th and 20th centuries.  Frederick Douglass remained a national civil rights spokesman until his death in 1895.  W.E.B Du Bois and others founded the pro-civil rights Niagara Movement in and around Buffalo in 1905.  Four years later, movement members joined with white progressives in Manhattan to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).  Soon after, Marcus Garvey developed a huge but short-lived following in support of black self-determination and economic development.

NAACP Banner, 1936
A  Second Reconstruction
Governor Nelson Rockefeller with
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Civil Rights Organization and Protest
Pins from the 1960s & 1970s