John Miller's New York Considered and Improved ranks among the essential resources for the history of the colony during the 1690s. During that time, Miller was stationed at Albany and shared his observations and impressions in the work published after his death. The excerpts printed below shed light on early Albany and its people!
 . . . So Albany is of Principall consideration against those who come by land the French & Indians of Canida. it is distant from New Yorke 150 miles & lyes up Hudsons River on the west side on the descent of a hill from the West to the Eastward. It is in circumference about 6 furlongs & hath therein about 200 houses (a fourth part of what there is Reckoned to be in N. Yorke. The forme of it is sepangular & the longest line that which buts upon the River running from north to the south. On the West Angle is the fort quadrangular strongly stockaded & ditched round having in it 21 pieces of Ordinance mounted. On the Northwest side are [ 38 ] Blockhouses & on the south west as many on the south-east angle stands 1 blockhouse, in the middle of the line from thence Norward is a horned worke & on the North-east Angle a mount. The whole City is well stockaded round & in the severall fortifications named are about 30 Gune. Dependant on this City & about 20 miles distance to the northward from it is the Fort of Scanectade* quadrangular, with a treble stockade a new blockhouse at every angle & in each blockhouse 2 great Guns* Nestigayuna & the half moon places+ formerly of Som account [ 39 ] but now deserted. On this city also depends the Fort at ye Flats four miles from Albany belonging to the River Indians who are about sixty families . . .
[51-52] Explanatory keys to the diagrams of Albany and its fort which are printed as plates after page 47.
Appendix C 
Information furnished by the Reverend Mr. Miller Respecting New-York
Whitehall, September the 4th 1696Mr. Miller late Chaplain to His Majesty's Forces in New Yorke, attending, shewed a Generall Order from Colonell Fletcher to Mr. Gilbert Heathcote for his Pay dated the 22d Aprill 1693. But a servant of Mr. Heathcote's accompanying him produced a letter of Colonell Fletcher's to Mr. Heathcote dated the 29th May 1695, in which the state of his Accounts is limited to the 1st of June 1695. And said that Mr. Heathcote had paid him all that he had order for: Wherewithall nevertheless Mr. Miller not being satisfied his complaint arising upon an account between him and Colonel Fletcher he was thereupon told that the decision of that matter did not belong to this Board.
From New York Considered and Improved, 1695, by John Miller; published with an introduction by Victor Hugo Paltsits (Cleveland, 1903). Page references in brackets. The original punctuation and spellings are variable and have been retained! Most pages in the printed version include extensive footnotes - thus accounting for the small amount of text on each page.
Transformed by SB
first posted: 11/10/02; last revised 1/27/03